Michael Grafals defended his dissertation in Spring 2016. He is now a Lecturer in English at Florida International University; his main scholarly interests include discourses of migration, hybridity, and resistance in post-colonial literatures from Latin America, the Pan-Caribbean, and Africa. His current research focuses on Puerto Rican writers who reconfigure their nation's spatial identifications beyond those established historically through the colonization by Spain and the United States. This tradition, represented by writers like Eugenio María de Hostos, Luis Palés Matos, Iris Zavala and Manuel Ramos Otero, construct alternative spatial routings of Caribbean modernity that critique institutionalized spatial formations of colonization and modernization. His work also explores resonances between these forms of modernity with those constructed by other Caribbean authors like Aimé Césaire, Derek Walcott, Édouard Glissant and Maryse Condé.